Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) is an effective intervention for improving breath perception.
The results of this study showed that IMT enhanced respiratory muscle strength and caused significant brain changes in the DMN and insula networks assessed by RS-fMRI in healthy subjects.
figure1:(Above) DMN activation maps are shown (in neurologic convention) in groups separately before (a), and after IMT (b, sham; c, IMT). After 8 weeks of IMT, insula deactivations with DMN regions show significant reduction (P < 0.001). Comparison of groups increased activation in bilateral postcentral gyrus in sham group than baseline (d). Comparison of IMT and baseline, IMT group reveals greater activation in the bilateral insula, left putamen, bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, and left cerebellum in the IMT group than baseline and deactivation in the left middle temporal gyrus (e). Greater activation in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, right insula, left cerebellum and decreased activation right cerebellum in IMT group than sham (f).
figure2:(Below) Bilateral insula network and connectivity maps are shown (in neurologic convention) in the groups separately before (a), and after IMT (b, sham; c, IMT). Insula activation shows reduction and ACC shows increased strength and extent of activation in the IMT group after training (c) compared to baseline map (a) (P < 0.001). Comparison of groups increased activation in rectal gyrus and decreased activation in right cerebellum in sham than baseline (d). IMT group reveals greater activation in right rectal gyrus, right paraHippocampal gyrus, right IFG and decreased activation in left cerebellum than baseline (e). It shows greater activation of left cerebellum, right superior medial gyrus, rectal gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus, right middle orbital gyrus, left hippocampus, and greater deactivation of right thalamus, right pallidum, right IFG and left middle temporal pole in IMT group than sham (f).)