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A new study by UMRAM researchers Professor Kader Karlı Oguz and  Arzu Ceylan Has has been published in International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education

The main purpose of the current study is to explain the effect of an enrichment reading program on the cognitive processes and neural structures of children experiencing reading difficulties. The current study was carried out in line with a single-subject research method and the between-subjects multiple probe design belonging to this method. This research focuses on a group of eight students with reading difficulties. Within the context of the study, memory capacities, attention spans, reading-related functional MRI activation and white matter pathways of the students were determined before and after the application of the enrichment reading program. This determination process was carried out in two stages. Neuro-imaging was performed in the first stage and in the second stage the students’ cognitive processes and neural structures were investigated in terms of focusing attention and memory capacities by using the following tools: Stroop Test TBAG Form, Auditory Verbal Digit Span Test-Form B, Cancellation Test and Number Order Learning Test. The results obtained show that the enrichment reading program resulted in an improvement in the reading profiles of the students having reading difficulties in terms of their cognitive processes and neural structures.

When the studies dealing with white matter and activation are examined, it is seen that they have mostly focused on adults and compared neural structures of good and poor readers. Within the context of the current study, since each student’s state before the implementation of the reading program was accepted as a unique starting point, it has been possible to investigate and explain the effect of the enrichment reading program on the students’ neural structures in an individualized way. When we examine the results reported by neuro-imaging studies focusing on reading and reading, we see that there is some degree of consistency, but also differentiation between the findings. The reason for this can be age, gender, or the complex and multi-faceted structure of reading.The full article can be found :here

A research by Kader Karli Oguz of UMRAM entitled"A potential non-invasive glioblastoma treatment: Nose-to-brain delivery of farnesylthiosalicylic acid incorporated hybrid nanoparticles" has been accepted by in Science Direct and will be released soon. This study evaluated the antitumor efficacy of farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTA) loaded (lipid-cationic) lipid-PEG-PLGA hybrid nanoparticles (HNPs) after IN application in rats. FTA loaded HNPs were prepared, characterized and evaluated for cytotoxicity. Rat glioma 2 (RG2) cells were implanted unilaterally into the right striatum of female Wistar rats. 10 days later, glioma bearing rats received either no treatment, or 5 repeated doses of 500 μM freshly prepared FTA loaded HNPs via IN or intravenous (IV) application. Pre-treatment and post-treatment tumor sizes were determined with MRI. After a treatment period of 5 days, IN applied FTA loaded HNPs achieved a significant decrease of 55.7% in tumor area, equal to IV applied FTA loaded HNPs. Herewith, we showed the potential utility of IN application of FTA loaded HNPs as a non-invasive approach in glioblastoma treatment. Here :

 

 

 

 

 

Another research of which imaging studies carried out in UMRAM by Kader Karli Oguz has been published in Pub Med of NIH. The objective was to develop lipid-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-polymer hybrid nanoparticles, which have high affinity to tumour tissue with active ingredient, a new generation antineoplastic drug, farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTA) for treatment of glioblastoma. The key fidings  showed that all formulations prepared had smooth surface and spherical in shape. FTA and FTA-loaded nanoparticles have cytotoxic activity against RG2 glioma cell lines in cell culture studies, which further increases with addition of DOTAP. Magnetic resonance imaging and histopathologic evaluation on RG2 tumour cells in rat glioma model (49 female Wistar rats, 250-300 g) comparing intravenous and intratumoral injections of the drug have been performed and FTA-loaded nanoparticles reduced tumour size significantly in in-vivo studies, with higher efficiency of intratumoral administration than intravenous route. It has been concluded that Farnesylthiosalicylic acid-loaded PLGA-DSPE-PEG-DOTAP hybrid nanoparticles are proven to be effective against glioblastoma in both in-vitro and in-vivo experiments. For the article :

 

A new article by Kader Karli Oguz has been published in US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. It is aimed to evaluate the antitumor activity of curcumin on glioblastoma tissue in the rat glioma-2 (RG2) tumor model when it is loaded on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-1,2-distearoyl-glycerol-3-phospho-ethanolamine-N-[methoxy (polyethylene glycol)-2000] ammonium salt (PLGA-DSPE-PEG) hybrid nanoparticles here.  Significant tumor size decrease observed  after 5 days of intratumoral injection of curcumin-loaded nanoparticle (from 66.6±44.6 to 34.9±21.7mm3, p=0.028), whereas it significantly increased in nontreated control group (from 33.9±21.3 to 123.7±41.1mm3, p=0.036) and did not significantly change in other groups (p>0.05 for all). The article can be found here:

 

 

 

A one day course was organized in which functional MRI techniques and analysis methods were discussed in the context of TMRDs' Annual Meeting this year. Emine Saritas, Tolga Cukur, Kader Karli Oguz, Huseyin Boyaci, Hulusi Kafaligonul, Arzu Ceylan Has and Pinar Boyaci were among the guest speakers at this important event. As there was a huge demand for UMRAM to organize a course on FMRI, this one day course was planned to give a general idea about FMRI techniques and analysis to the interested participants.

A new study by UMRAM researchers Professor Kader Karlı Oguz and  Arzu Ceylan Has has been published in Gynecological Endocrinology.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common reproductive endocrinopathy in women of childbearing age, is closely related with obesity and metabolic dysfunction. A similar increase in the prevalence of PCOS and obesity generated thoughts that these disorders might have a cause and effect relationship.

Food intake is controlled centrally by two complementary systems which are known as homeostatic and hedonic systems. These systems are important parts of gray matter in the central nervous system (CNS). These systems are also closely related with hormones, most well-known being an adipocyte-derived hormone leptin, which informs the brain about long-term energy stores. Ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are among other members of these systems and they are responsible for providing information about short-term energy status

Our aim was to detect differences in global brain volumes and identify relations between brain volume and appetite-related hormones in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared to body mass index-matched controls. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging and measurements of fasting ghrelin, leptin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), as well as GLP-1 levels during mixed-meal tolerance test (MTT), were performed on forty subjects. We have observed a reduction in total brain volume and total gray matter volume, as well as gray matter reductions in some appetite-related areas. These alterations did not show any association with basal peripheral levels of leptin, ghrelin and GLP-1 and meal stimulated GLP-1 levels. Further studies with larger sample size are needed to assess the functional relevance of structural alterations in brain regions of PCOS.The full article can be found here:

Chocolate

A review article by METU Food Engineering Researchers titled as Mathematical Modeling and Use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for Oil Migration in Chocolate Confectionery Systems was published online on Food Engineering Reviews : http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12393-016-9152-4

Oil migration is a common problem in chocolate confectionery products leading to quality defects, particularly fat bloom. Although there are so many methods to monitor and quantify migration, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is among the most promising techniques as being non-destructive. This review covered the literature related to basics of migration, mechanisms, and monitoring and modeling migration in chocolate through MRI and also included a brief description about chocolate, chocolate processing, and fundamental concepts in MRI. Additional to literature studies, MRI experiment for a two-layer chocolate system (peanut butter over chocolate layer) stored for 29 days at 30 °C was also performed in a 3T clinical scanner (SIEMENS MAGNETOM Trio, Germany) at UMRAM. During the storage, oil migrated from peanut butter to the chocolate region and resulted in a brighter visualization in chocolate layer starting from the top of chocolate surface. Due to incompatibility of the migrating oil, cocoa butter would be dissolved in the migrating oil and could contribute to signal intensity significantly. In that regard, this review is expected to act as a guide for researchers and industries to use MRI as a tool for monitoring oil migration and as a characterization tool for various applications in food science.